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Thereheat pumpis a device that extracts theheatfrom one environment and transfers it to another. Thereheat pumphis is not a new technologyoperationhas been known for centuries and in the modern era it is used inrefrigeratorsisair conditioners.
There are several types ofheat pumpsbut theirsoperationcan be attributable to the same principle: the energy required for "transfer"theheatit is less than that necessary for its production. Obviously, if you want to heat a house on a cold winter day, more energy will be needed to "transfer" the heat inside, but this energy will always be less than that required for the production ofheatb.
As stated, there are different models ofheat pumps:
- air conditioners
- compression heat pump
- absorption heat pump
- phase change heat pump
- thermoelectric heat pump
- geothermal heat pump
- Ranque-hilshch tube heat pump
If oneheat pumptransfers hot air from one room to another, how can an air conditioner provide both cooling and heating? In the field of air conditioning, the term heat pump refers specifically to an air conditioner with a reversible valve, which changes the direction of flow of the refrigerant fluid and thus allows both to supply and extract heat from a room of a building.
Thereheat pumpit consists of a closed circuit, traversed by a special fluid (called refrigerant) which, depending on the temperature and pressure conditions in which it is found, assumes the state of liquid or vapor. The closed circuit consists of a compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve and an evaporator. All the details of the operation and structure of the heat pumpcan be viewed in this brochure in pdf released by ENEA.