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In agriculture, among the plants that resist the sun and withstand drought better, the broad bean, white lupine, lentil, chickpea and pea stand out. And it is probably with these legumes that we will increasingly have to supplement our diet if it is true as it is true that crops in the future will move towards varieties that can withstand water stress well, which means water shortages.
Moving from the garden to the field, between plants that resist the sun and they are satisfied with little water we discover that barley is more resistant than hard wheat, and even more so than soft ones. The early oats are more resistant than the late ones, while among the weeds the least thirsty species is the vetch followed by the broad bean and fenugreek. Less resistant to water deficit is the incarnate clover. In the meadows, the one that best resists the heat is sul, followed by alfalfa, sainfoin and red clover.
Studies in agriculture on plants that resist the sun (on which several research institutes are working, including ENEA) have become important in the light of the 'new' agriculture imagined for the future, always made up of plants capable of withstanding even very high temperatures and withstanding prolonged scarcity well. of precipitation.
The global rise in temperatures, the effects of which are already manifesting themselves in recent years, inevitably translate into agricultural production. With reference to the areas of Southern Europe, the yields of current agricultural production are expected to decrease between 1.9% and 22.4% between 2020 and 2080 in light of the expected climatic changes. The appeal to plants that resist the sun it is a necessity.
According to a report from the European Union, there are five climatic factors that will determine the decrease in agricultural production: shortening of the growing period, more frequent extreme climatic events during the phases of the production cycle, more intense rainfall in the sowing phase, drought stress during flowering and more prolonged dry periods.
Especially with regard to the last two climatic factors, the research on plants that resist the sun and the scarcity of water will certainly give advantages. A basic indication is that in the future the autumn-spring cycle crops may have the upper hand over the spring-summer cycle crops. This is because in autumn-spring the availability of water is maximum and the demand for evaporation of the environment is minimal.
You may also be interested in the article on "Desertification in Italy and in the world“